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I would describe SAP Cloud Platform Backend service as follows:
You open this cloud application in your browser
You pass a model file to the creation wizard
After only a few seconds you get an OData service, ready to use
The service has its own persistence, you don’t need to care about it at all
No code

The targeted role is the so-called citizen developer

It is easy to use, but nevertheless, I’m creating a series of tutorials to support you getting started and creating data models
This page also collects other links to material which you might want to view


Preparation & Configuration

0.1 Preparation
0.2 Roles Configuration
0.3 CDS Model Creation Tools
0.4 Configuration of BETA subaccount to enable calling APIs from external app
0.5 Security settings to enable calling APIs from external app
16 Fine-tuning role configuration for productive use of APIs

Creating APIs

1   Easy API Creation ===> F E A T U R E D <===
2   Use the Cockpit to easily fire Service Requests
32 Easy API versioning

CDS Tutorials

1.1 CDS explained
3   CDS: how to define associations (1)
4   CDS: how to define associations (2)
5   CDS: how to use Facets
6   CDS: how to use Custom Types
7   CDS: organize your models by separating data from service model
8   CDS: organize your models using namespace and contexts
9   CDS: how to use the select statement
10 CDS: association to an entity which is exposed by multiple projections
11 CDS: auto-generated values for key properties
12 CDS: how to run local CDS build
17 CDS: defining and using ETag

Consuming APIs & Security

13 How to call APIs from external tool (local REST client tool)
27 How to call APIs from external tool, made easy (via approuter)
18 How to call APIs from external node.js app
19 How to call APIs from internal node.js app (deploy to CF)
20 How to call APIs from internal node.js app using binding (cloud)
21 How to call APIs from internal node.js app with xsuaa login ("Authorization Code")
22 How to call APIs from internal node.js app using Destination service
14 Understanding the OAuth flow when calling APIs from external app
15 Understanding the OAuth flow with grant type "Authorization Code"
24 Understanding the "Application Router" (1)
25 Understanding the "Application Router" (2)
26 Understanding the "Application Router" (3): route to Backend service with user login
33 Understanding the "Application Router" (4): Local
28 Scenario including AppRouter, Node app, TokenExchange Destination, Backend service
Calling protected app with scope: from other app and external user
30 User Interface (1): How to call an API from HTML page
31 User Interface (2): How to call an API from UI5 application

More Tutorials

23 Using the command line client for managing apps in Cloud Foundry
29 Troubleshooting: "Forbidden" Error - how to read JWT token

Other resources

The Backend service topic page:
The super cool YouTube video (1:30 time to watch, but definitely more time enjoying…)
SAP Cloud Platform Backend service in SAP Help Portal documentation

Documentation: SAP Help Portal documentation 
CAP docu:

- The homepage:
- The protocol:
- How URLs have to be composed: URL conventions
- What’s New in OData V4.0 compared to previous version

Citizen Developer

If "citizen" is not enough and a Backend service API is too simple, then you might be interested in developing APIs with SAP Cloud Application Programming Model
Example: Deep Insert is not supported in Backend service, so you need this blog and that blog to implement it with CAP
To get started with Java implementation for CAP extensions, this series will be helpful

Important post: How to configure security in app-to-app scenario (client-credentials)
Same, but accross subaccount borders
Understanding JWT token, audiences
How to add custom property to JWT token

Great blog series by sharadha.k covering a nice serverless scenario

Great blog series about SAP Cloud Platform Extension Factory, serverless runtime