In order to show data residing outside SuccessFactors in a tile, custom development is required.
The integration can either be done using an SAP Web Dispatcher (no license) or the SAP HANA Cloud Connector (license fee) depending on the requirement.
Single Sign-On is possible.
Use when a small dashboard or chart is needed on the Home Page to present aggregated, external data, and when harmonised styling and top user experience are needed. Note the width limitation on tiles where the largest is 612 pixels wide.
As a final option, you could also consider to integrate a dashboard using a standard "custom tile". A suitable dashboard solution to do this could be Design Studio and I will create a separate blog post on this in the near future.